Articles, Essays, and Reports





Senior Fellow, ITIF

Clean and Competitive: Opportunities for U.S. Manufacturing Leadership in the Global Low-Carbon Economy” (with Peter Fox-Penner, Henry C. Kelly, and others), Information Technology and Innovation Foundation/Boston University Institute for Sustainable Energy/Fraunhofer USA Center for Manufacturing Innovation, June 21, 2021.

Energizing Innovation: Update with President’s Budget Request” (with Linh Nguyen), Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, June 2021.

Building Back Cleaner With Industrial Decarbonization Demonstration Projects,” Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, March 8, 2021.

The Impact of China’s Production Surge on Innovation in the Global Solar Photovoltaics Industry,” Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, October 5, 2020.

Energizing America: A Roadmap to Launch a National Energy Innovation Mission” (with Varun Sivaram, Colin Cunliff,  Julio Friedmann, and David Sandalow), Columbia University Center for Global Energy Policy, September 15, 2020

Gene Editing for the Climate: Biological Solutions for Curbing Greenhouse Emissions” (with Val Giddings and Robert Rozansky), September 14, 2020.

More and Better: Building and Managing a Federal Energy Demonstration Project Portfolio” (with Robert Rozansky), Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, May 18, 2020.

Mind the Gap: A Design for a New Energy Technology Commercialization Foundation” (with Jetta L. Wong), Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, May 11, 2020.

A National Energy Storage Initiative,” The Day One Project, January 23, 2020.

Energy Innovation: The Forgotten Side of Paris,” in UN Clean Technology Centre and Network, Climate Change Strategies 2020, December 13, 2019.

Less Certain than Death: Using Tax Incentives to Drive Clean Energy Innovation,” (with Elizabeth Noll), Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, December 2, 2019.

The Global Energy Innovation Index: National Contributions to the Global Clean Energy Innovation System,” (with Colin Cunliff), Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, August 26, 2019.

Clean Energy Based Regional Economic Development: Multiple Tracks for State and Local Policies in a Federal System,” Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, February 25, 2019.

Making “Beyond Lithium” a Reality: Fostering Innovation in Long-Duration Grid Storage,” Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, November 28, 2018.

The Need for Continued Innovation in Solar, Wind, and Energy Storage,” (with John Dabiri and Varun Sivaram), Joule 2(9): 1639-1642 (19 September 2018).

Beyond the Technology Pork Barrel? An Assessment of the Obama Administration’s Energy Demonstration Projects,” Energy Policy 119:367-376 (2018).

When Does Environmental Regulation Stimulate Technological Innovation?” Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, July 23, 2018.

Manufacturing USA at DOE: Supporting Energy Innovation” (with Peter L. Singer),  Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, May 16, 2018.

Energy Storage for the Grid:  Policy Options for Sustaining Innovation” MIT Energy Initiative working paper (with William B. Bonvillian and Nathaniel Austin), April 26, 2018.

Federal Energy RD&D:  Building on Momentum in Fiscal 2019” (with Colin Cunliff), April 23, 2018.

ARPA-E:  Versatile Catalyst for U.S. Energy Innovation,” (with Michael Kearney), Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, November 2017.

Crossing the Valley of Death:  Designing and Running Successful Clean-Energy Demonstration Projects,” Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, July 2017.

Bad Blueprint:  Why Trump Should Ignore the Heritage Plan to Gut Federal Investment” (with Stephen Ezell and Robert D. Atkinson), , Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, February 2017.

Energy Innovation Policy:  Priorities for the Trump Administration and Congress” (with Varun Sivaram, Teryn Norris, and Colin McCormick) , Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, December 2016.

Rescuing the Low-Carbon Energy Transition from Magical Thinking,” Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, October 2016.

Deployment of Grid-Scale Batteries in the United States,” prepared for DOE EPSA-50, June 2016.

Deployment of Solar Photovoltaic Generation Capacity in the United States,” prepared for DOE EPSA-50, June 2016.

Enhancing the Usefulness of Science of Science and Innovation Policy Research,” (with Christopher T. Hill and Jeffrey Alexander), report on a workshop held on December 7, 2015 at George Mason University.

The Demography of U.S. Innovation”  (with Adams Nager, Stephen Ezell, and Robert D. Atkinson), Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, February 2016.

Closing the Energy-Demonstration Gap” (with Richard K. Lester), Issues in Science and Technology, Winter 2015, 48-54.

“An Agent, Not a Mole:  Assessing the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy,” Science and Public Policy 41:411-418 (2014).

“Founder Nativity, Founding Team Formation, and Firm Performance in the U.S. High-Tech Sector,”  International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 10:1-22 (2014).

“A National Network for Manufacturing Innovation:  Why America Needs It and How It Should Work” (with Robert D. Atkinson and Stephen Ezell), Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, December 2012.

“The Future of Manufacturing:  The United States Stirs,” Innovations, Summer 2012, 25-34.

“Framework Conditions for High-Potential Entrepreneurship:  A Theoretical Structure and Its Implications,” in Martin Andersson, ed., Innovation and Growth (Oxford University Press, 2012).

“State Regulation and Photovoltaic Electricity in New Jersey,” in Rolf Wustenhagen and Robert Wuebker, eds., Handbook of Research on Energy Entrepreneurship (Edward Elgar, 2011).

“The Social Context for High-Potential Entrepreneurship in the U.S.:  An Historical-Institutional Perspective,” in Chikako Usui, ed., Comparative Entrepreneurship Initiatives (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

“The Northern Virginia Clean Energy Economy Report,” (with Morgan Transue and Inkyoung Sun), George Mason University, School of Public Policy, Center for Science and Technology Policy, June 2011.

“Immigration and High-Impact, High-Tech Entrepreneurship,” (with Zoltan J. Acs), Brookings Institution policy brief, February 2011.

High-Technology Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the U.S.” (with Zoltan J. Acs), Economic Development Quarterly 25:116-129 (2011).

Making, Breaking, and (Partially) Remaking Markets: State Regulation and Photovoltaic Electricity in New Jersey,” Energy Policy 38:6662-6673 (2010).

Talent for a Knowledge- Based and Innovation-Oriented Economy: Hong Kong’s Challenges and Opportunities” (with Fangmeng Tian), in Douglas B. Fuller, ed., Innovation Policy and the Limits of Laissez Faire, (Palgrave McMillan 2010)

International Cooperation To Manage High-Skill Migration: The Case of U.S.-India Relations” (with Ted Davis), Review of Policy Research 27:509-526 (2010).

“Introduction to the Special Issue,” Review of Policy Research 27:387-388 (2010).

Political Theory of the Firm,” in David Coen and Graham Wilson, eds. Oxford Handbook of Business and Government (Oxford University Press, 2010), 173-190.

“Governing the Global Knowledge Economy: Mind the Gap!,” Global Studies Review, Summer 2010.

High-Technology Immigrant Entrepreneurship in the U.S.” Office of Advocacy, U.S. Small Business Administration. July 2009

Accounting for Change in National Systems of Innovation,” Research Policy 38:647-654 (2009).

Brain Gain,” Princeton Encyclopedia of the World Economy (Princeton University Press, 2008).

The Politics of “Entrepreneurial” Economic Development Policy in the U.S. States,” Review of Policy Research 25(2):149-168(2008).

U.S. Politics, Economy, and Technology,” Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Technology (Blackwell, 2007).

“Red, White, and ‘Big Blue’: IBM and the Business-Government Interface in the U.S., 1956-2000,” Enterprise and Society 8(1):1-34 (2007).

Understanding Immigration in a National Systems of Innovation Framework,” Science and Public Policy 34(1):45-53 (2007).

Governing the Global Knowledge Economy,” FLAD Newsletter, December 2006, 14-15.

Global Flows of Talent: Benchmarking the U.S.,” Information Technology and Innovation Foundation policy brief, November 17, 2006.

From Brain Drain to Mutual Gain: New Opportunities to Share the Benefits of High-Skill Migration,” Issues in Science and Technology, Fall, 2006, 53-62.

Managing the Global Talent Pool: Sovereignty, Regimes, and Intergovernmental Networks,” Technology in Society 28(4):421-434 (2006).

“The Political Development of William C. Norris and Control Data Corporation, 1957-1986,” Enterprise & Society 6:197-223 (2005).

“Political Economy of Science and Technology,” Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics (Macmillan, 2005).

“Bush-Kerry: More of the Change?,” The Scientist, October 25, 2004.

Business Is Not an Interest Group: On Companies in American National Politics,” Annual Review of Political Science 7:47-67 (2004).

Corporate Technological Capabilities and the State: A Dynamic Historical Interaction,” in Kenneth Lipartito and David B. Sicilia, eds., Constructing Corporate America: Historical Perspectives on Big Business, Society, and Politics (Oxford University Press, 2004).

Political Representation Among Dominant Firms: Revisiting the Olsonian Hypothesis,” Business and Politics 5:261-286 (2003).

Entrepreneurship Policy: What It Is and Where It Came From” in David M. Hart, ed., The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Policy (Cambridge University Press, 2003).

Knowledge, Power, and Entrepreneurs: A First Pass at the Politics of Entrepreneurship Policy,” in David M. Hart, ed., The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Policy (Cambridge University Press, 2003).

Private Technological Capabilities as Products of National Innovation Systems: Four Ways of Looking at the State,” Science and Public Policy 29:181-188 (2002).

High-Tech Learns to Play the Washington Game, or the Political Education of Bill Gates and Other Nerds” in Allan J. Cigler and Burdett Loomis, eds., Interest Group Politics, 6th ed. (CQ Press, 2002)

Why Do Some Firms Give? Why Do Some Firms Give a Lot? High-Tech PACs, 1977-1996,” Journal of Politics, August 2001, Vol. 63, no. 4, 1230-1249.

Antitrust and Technological Innovation in the U.S.: Ideas, Institutions, Decisions, and Outcomes, 1890-2000,” Research Policy, Vol. 30 no. 6, 923-936 ( June 2001).

“New Economy, Old Politics: The Evolving Role of the High-Tech Industry in U.S. Politics,” in John D. Donahue and Joseph S. Nye, Jr., eds., Governance Amid Bigger, Better Markets (Brookings, 2001).

“Government Organization: Implications for Science and Technology Policy,” in John de la Mothe, ed., Science, Technology, and Governance (Continuum Books, 2001).

“Research, Innovation, and Politics,” Nature 407:561-562 (5 October 2000).

“Technology Policy in the First Clinton Administration,” in Triumphs and Tragedies of the Modern Presidency: Seventy-Six Case Studies in Presidential Leadership (Washington: Center for the Study of the Presidency, 2000).

“IBM in American Politics, 1970-1999, Business and Economic History 28(2):49-60 (1999).

“Commentario: Ciencia – La Frontiera Sin Fin,” Redes 7(14):143-146 (1999).

“Antitrust and Technological Innovation,” Issues in Science and Technology, Winter, 1998-99, pp. 75-82.

Herbert Hoover’s Last Laugh: The Enduring Significance of the ‘Associative State’ in the United States,” Journal of Policy History 10:419-444 (1998).

“U.S. Technology Policy: New Tools for New Times,” NIRA Review, Summer, 1998, pp. 3-6.

Managing Technology Policy at the White House,” in Lewis M. Branscomb and James H. Keller, eds., Investing in Innovation (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998), pp. 438-461.

“Investing in Innovation” Competitiveness Policy Council, April 24, 1997 (with Lewis Branscomb, Richard Florida, James Keller, and Darin Boville).

“Facilitating Technological Change in Developing Country Energy Systems: Lessons from Development Experience,” in Henry Lee, ed., Shaping National Responses to Climate Change: A Post-Rio Guide (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1995) (with Vicki Norberg-Bohm), pp. 261-288.

“Scientific Elites and the Making of U.S. Policy for Climate Change Research, 1957-1974,” Social Studies of Science 23:643-680 (1993) (with David Victor).

“Strategies of Research Policy Advocacy: Anthropogenic Climatic Change Research, 1957-1974,” Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, working paper 92-08, September, 1992.

Guest editor, special issue on “Science, Technology, and Individual Responsibility,” Technology in Society, volume 8, number 4 (1986).